Going to stick this here for reference…
Pimecromilus, Rampycin, tacrolimus are all in cream forms…but I dont know if that is how they’d be delivered. One is used for eczema…
In certain embodiments, a nonsteroidal immunosuppressant can be used in the compositions, methods, and kits of the invention. Suitable immunosuppressants include cyclosporine, tacrolimus, rapamycin, everolimus, and pimecrolimus.
The cyclosporines are fungal metabolites that comprise a class of cyclic oligopeptides that act as immunosuppressants. Cyclosporine A is a hydrophobic cyclic polypeptide consisting of eleven amino acids. It binds and forms a complex with the intracellular receptor cyclophilin. The cyclosporine/cyclophilin complex binds to and inhibits calcineurin, a Ca2± calmodulin-dependent serine-threonine-specifϊc protein phosphatase. Calcineurin mediates signal transduction events required for T-cell activation (reviewed in Schreiber et al., Cell 70:365-368, 1991). Cyclosporines and their functional and structural analogs suppress the T cell-dependent immune response by inhibiting antigen-triggered signal transduction. This inhibition decreases the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-2. Many different cyclosporines (e.g., cyclosporine A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and I) are produced by fungi. Cyclosporine A is a commercially available under the trade name NEORAL from Novartis. Cyclosporine A structural and functional analogs include cyclosporines having one or more fluorinated amino acids (described, e.g., in U.S. Patent No. 5,227,467); cyclosporines having
modified amino acids (described, e.g., in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,122,511 and 4,798,823); and deuterated cyclosporines, such as ISAtx247 (described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2002/0132763 Al). Additional cyclosporine analogs are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,136,357, 4,384,996, 5,284,826, and 5,709,797. Cyclosporine analogs include, but are not limited to, D-Sar (α-SMe)3 Val2-DH-Cs (209-825), Allo-Thr-2-Cs, Norvaline-2-Cs, D- Ala(3-acetylamino)-8-Cs, Thr-2-Cs, and D-MeSer-3-Cs, D-SeI-(O-CH2CH2- OH)-8-Cs, and D-Ser-8-Cs, which are described in Cruz et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 143 (2000).
Tacrolimus and tacrolimus analogs are described by Tanaka et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc, 109:5031 (1987)) and in U.S. Patent Nos. 4,894,366, 4,929,611, and 4,956,352. FK506-related compounds, including FR-900520, FR-900523, and FR-900525, are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,254,562; O- aryl, O-alkyl, O-alkenyl, and O-alkynylmacrolides are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,250,678, 532,248, 5,693,648; amino O-aryl macrolides are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,262,533; alkylidene macrolides are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,284,840; N-heteroaryl, N-alkylheteroaryl, N-alkenylheteroaryl, and N- alkynylheteroaryl macrolides are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,208,241 ; aminomacrolides and derivatives thereof are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,208,228; fluoromacrolides are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,189,042; amino O-alkyl, O-alkenyl, and O-alkynylmacrolides are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,162,334; and halomacrolides are described in U.S. Patent No. 5,143,918. Tacrolimus is extensively metabolized by the mixed-function oxidase system, in particular, by the cytochrome P-450 system. The primary mechanism of metabolism is demethylation and hydroxylation. While various tacrolimus metabolites are likely to exhibit immunosuppressive biological
activity, the 13-demethyl metabolite is reported to have the same activity as tacrolimus.
Pimecrolimns Pimecrolimus is the 33-epi-chloro derivative of the macrolactam ascomyin. Pimecrolimus structural and functional analogs are described in U.S. Patent No. 6,384,073.
Rapamycin Rapamycin structural and functional analogs include mono- and diacylated rapamycin derivatives (U.S. Patent No. 4,316,885); rapamycin water-soluble prodrugs (U.S. Patent No. 4,650,803); carboxylic acid esters (PCT Publication No. WO 92/05179); carbamates (U.S. Patent No. 5,118,678); amide esters (U.S. Patent No. 5,118,678); biotin esters (U.S. Patent No. 5,504,091); fluorinated esters (U.S. Patent No. 5,100,883); acetals (U.S. Patent No. 5,151,413); silyl ethers (U.S. Patent No. 5,120,842); bicyclic derivatives (U.S. Patent No. 5,120,725); rapamycin dimers (U.S. Patent No. 5,120,727); O- aryl, O-alkyl, O-alkyenyl and O-alkynyl derivatives (U.S. Patent No. 5,258,389); and deuterated rapamycin (U.S. Patent No. 6,503,921). Additional rapamycin analogs are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 5,202,332 and 5,169,851.